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March 9, 2016 / compassioninpolitics

Antonio 95–Roleplaying bad evidence

Their method of politics through simulation turns them into actors disengaged from politics and creates ressentiment.

Antonio ‘95 [Nietzsche’s antisociology: Subjectified Culture and the End of History”; American Journal of Sociology; Volume 101, No. 1; July 1995 //Amogh]

According to Nietzsche, the “subjectis Socratic culture’s most central, durable foundation. This prototypic expression of ressentiment, master reification, and ultimate justification for slave morality and mass discipline “separates strength from expressions of strength, as if there were a neutral substratum . . . free to express strength or not to do so. But there is no such substratum; there is no ‘being’ behind the doing, effecting, becoming; ‘the doer’ is merely a fiction added to the deed” (Nietzsche 1969b, pp. 45-46). Leveling of Socratic culture’s “objective” foundations makes its “subjective” features all the more important. For example, the subject is a central focus of the new human sciences, appearing prominently in its emphases on neutral standpoints, motives as causes, and selves as entities, objects of inquiry, problems, and targets of care (Nietzsche 1966, pp. 19-21; 1968a, pp. 47-54). Arguing that subjectified culture weakens the personality, Nietzsche spoke of a “remarkable antithesis between an interior which fails to correspond to any exterior and an exterior which fails to correspond to any interior” (Nietzsche 1983, pp. 78-79, 83). The “problem of the actor,” Nietzsche said, “troubled me for the longest time.”’12 He considered roles” as “external,” “surface,” or “foreground” phenomena and viewed close personal identification with them as symptomatic of estrangement. While modern theorists saw differentiated roles and professions as a matrix of autonomy and reflexivity, Nietzsche held that persons (especially male professionals) in specialized occupations overidentify with their positions and engage in gross fabrications to obtain advancement. They look hesitantly to the opinion of others, asking themselves, “How ought I feel about this?” They are so thoroughly absorbed in simulating effective role players that they have trouble being anything but actors-“The role has actually become the character.” This highly subjectified social self or simulator suffers devastating inauthenticity. The powerful authority given the social greatly amplifies Socratic culture’s already self-indulgent “inwardness.Integrity, decisiveness, spontaneity, and pleasure are undone by paralyzing overconcern about possible causes, meanings, and consequences of acts and unending internal dialogue about what others might think, expect, say, or do (Nietzsche 1983, pp. 83-86; 1986, pp. 39-40; 1974, pp. 302-4, 316-17). Nervous rotation of socially appropriate “masks” reduces persons to hypostatized “shadows,” “abstracts,” or simulacra. One adopts “many roles,” playing them “badly and superficially” in the fashion of a stiff “puppet play.” Nietzsche asked, “Are you genuine? Or only an actor?  A representative or that which is represented? . . . [Or] no more than an imitation of an actor?” Simulation is so pervasive that it is hard to tell the copy from the genuine article; social selves “prefer the copies to the originals” (Nietzsche 1983, pp. 84-86; 1986, p. 136; 1974, pp. 232- 33, 259; 1969b, pp. 268, 300, 302; 1968a, pp. 26-27). Their inwardness and aleatory scripts foreclose genuine attachment to others. This type of actor cannot plan for the long term or participate in enduring networks of interdependence; such a person is neither willing nor able to be a “stone” in the societal “edifice” (Nietzsche 1974, pp. 302-4; 1986a, pp. 93-94). Superficiality rules in the arid subjectivized landscape. Neitzsche (1974, p. 259) stated, “One thinks with a watch in one’s hand, even as one eats one’s midday meal while reading the latest news of the stock market; one lives as if one always ‘might miss out on something. ”Rather do anything than nothing’: this principle, too, is merely a string to throttle all culture. . . . Living in a constant chase after gain compels people to expend their spirit to the point of exhaustion in continual pretense and overreaching and anticipating others.” Pervasive leveling, improvising, and faking foster an inflated sense of ability and an oblivious attitude about the fortuitous circumstances that contribute to role attainment (e.g., class or ethnicity). The most mediocre people believe they can fill any position, even cultural leadership. Nietzsche respected the self-mastery of genuine ascetic priests, like Socrates, and praised their ability to redirect ressentiment creatively and to render the “sick” harmless. But he deeply feared the new simulated versions. Lacking the “born physician’s” capacities, these impostors amplify the worst inclinations of the herd; they are “violent, envious, exploitative, scheming, fawning, cringing, arrogant, all according to circumstances. ” Social selves are fodder for the “great man of the masses.” Nietzsche held that “the less one knows how to command, the more urgently one covets someone who commands, who commands severely- a god, prince, class, physician, father confessor, dogma, or party conscience. The deadly combination of desperate conforming and overreaching and untrammeled ressentiment paves the way for a new type of tyrant (Nietzsche 1986, pp. 137, 168; 1974, pp. 117-18, 213, 288-89, 303-


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